Frédérique Giuliani, Denis Laforgue, Corinne Rostaing
Mots-clés: Institution · Prison · Travail social · Reconnaissance · Contrôle · Pluralité
The question of «the entrance in institution» was quite particularly handled, in the sociology, with the concept of total institutions (Goffman 1968), which considers that the confinement (in purposes of control and of processing of the individuals) is essential, a component. A number of rites then allows to confirm, for all people, the necessary existence of this institutional confinement and control associated with it. The aim of this article is to ask how the admission into institution is transformed in a context of change of the contemporary institutions (interpreted sometimes in terms of decline, of crisis of legitimacy, sometimes of reorganizations). The analysis is based on the study of the rites and the ceremonies of admission observed within the context of three research: the strategies of adaptation of the prisoners to the prison, the socio-educational accompaniment of the stigmatized parents as deviants in the education of their children (assistance of parentality), the work of the professionals of the home care with older persons.
Mots-clés: Famille · Institution · Parent âgé · Résidant · Rite de passage · Repas
Entering a medico-social establishment (MSE) and spending a few months in it before dying is a reality that one in five persons aged eighty and over face. While MSEs are described as places to live, dying is often simultaneously present in these nursing homes. On the part of the institution, the residents’ stay must be arranged from admission to death. The staff organises rituals of entry without always thinking of them as such. This is the case with the welcome meal, organised for each new entry, observed in an MSE. An analysis of this meal shows how it can take on the appearance of a separation rite even as it is considered by the staff as a rite of alliance with the new resident and his relatives. This paper reports the re-categorisation – from relative to resident – that takes place during the meal. It exposes how this particular meal reveals order functions, exchanges and rituals at the heart of the institution.
Michaël Meyer, Krzysztof Skuza, Adrien Utz
Mots-clés: Police · Psychiatrie · Ethnographie · Hospitalisation · Partenariat
This article outlines the collaboration between the law enforcement and mental health systems in the context of joint interventions in institutional setting. The autors sketch a phenomenological ethnographic account of three compelling cases retained form a six month participant observational study in a psychiatric ward. Fieldwork data provide an illustration of the way several major issues arise in relation with professional identities and the implicit rationales underlying the joint intervention.
Marina Richter, Roger Kirchhofer, Ueli Hostettler, Chris Young
Schlagwörter: Freiheitsentzug · Gefängnis · Bildung · Spannungen · Brüche · Gegenkultur
The concept of the total institution could be understood to suggest that prisons work like frictionless machines. However, research has long shown that prison life is ambiguous and often less clearly defined than one would expect. We present findings from a project (BiSt), which was initiated in 2007 to improve basic education in the Swiss prison system. We build our account around a notion of fissure voiced by inmates: the idea that the educational unit is like an island (of normality) within the restricted and restrictive world of the prison.
Mots-clés: Prison · Proches · Parloir · Solidarité · Logiques institutionnelles
This article examines exchanges between prisoners and their relatives and questions the extent to which penal institutions can be opened. Relatives entering a prison are suspicious of its exterior and thus reveal the power of its punishment and sacrificial logic. In this context, links of support and affection between prisoners and their relatives constitute various bridges that limit the institution’s hold on inmates.
Mots-clés: Stigmate · Tactique · Centre d’hébergement · Normes de genre · Transgenre et gay
This article is about young people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender lodging at a shelter in New York City. As this shelter is not a «total institution» (Goffman), I explore the everyday lives of these youths, both in and out of the institution. I consider the ways these young people come and go in this institution as «tactics» (de Certeau) used to reach their goals. This perspective allows me to consider how a shelter can be a resource or / and an obstacle for its users.
Mots-clés: Brésil · Justice des mineurs · Milieu ouvert · Resocialisation
This paper seeks to call into question the meaning of «resocialization» in a socio-educational program for young offenders in Brazil known as «assisted freedom». We focus specifically on the process culminating in the judicial decision to put an end to probation. This decision is based on social workers’ reports describing the youth’s progress toward «resocialization». Through the analysis of social workers’ discourses and written reports, we highlight the tension between social workers’ values, their effective action potential and judicial expectations.
Keywords: Prison release · Stigma · Eastern Germany · Half-way house · Liminality
Drawing on wide-ranging empirical material collected as a participant observer in East Berlin in 2006 and 2007, the author offers an ethnographic account of ex-prisoners’ first weeks and months in a rehabilitation programme. The analysis shows that the social boundaries stemming from their long-term imprisonment and from stigmatisation processes developing in the outside society prevent them from fully reintegrating into society. A prisonised habitus continues to shape ex-inmates’ behaviour; the values and views that were dominant during their imprisonment still orient much of their social interactions. Ex-inmates’ relation to space, time and to a free environment is built up anew with the more or less successful help of social workers. The author proposes conceptualising their often frustrating experience as liminal, using Victor Turner’s perspective of liminality as a subjective state and therefore as a state that can be perpetuated by ex-inmates trapped between the inside and the outside.
Mauro Cerbino, Ana Rodríguez
Translation: Jérémie Voirol
Mots-clés: Latin Kings · Jeunes · Etat-nation · Exclusion · Transnationalisme · Colonialité
This article aims at giving an account of the historical, social and cultural conditions which allowed the «Latin Kings» to emerge despite the continued significant inequalities and exclusions in Ecuadorian society. Departing from normative, positivist criminology conceptions of the «Latin Kings» as a gang phenomenon, i.e. a «deviant» formation of young people, we consider the gang as a national narrative, established and developed at the very core of the failed modernity of the Ecuadorian nation-state, particularly its neo-liberal projects.
Cédric Duchêne-Lacroix, Anne Beutter
Schlagwörter: Präsenz · Raum · Tamilen · Hindutempel · Basel · de Certeau
The Swiss religious landscape has diversified as a result of immigration and new religious movements. While political debate on religious visibility, e.g. the minaret controversy, obscures the complexity of religious space, this article analyses the place of worship of a relatively unknown group: the Hindutempel community in Basel. By adapting the notion of «presence» to a multi-dimensional space consisting of geographic, governmental, social, sacred and reticular facets, and by drawing on de Certeau, the analysis better grasps the dynamics between the dimensions out of which the Hindutempel emerges. Tracing how the network has gradually institutionalised, we show how a multidimensional and visible «proper» is eventually gained: through geographic repositioning and religious investment in chosen places of worship despite the lack of resources that leads worshippers to get by with little. Using de Certeau’s terms, the temple appears as a palimpsest of several spatial dimensions of presence.